Last Update: 2020-10-19

東京農工大学大学院 工学府 機械システム工学専攻                                        日本語/English




10:00-11:00, Thursday, November 5th, 2020
Online *Please visit the following link on time.

Associate Professor Ruri Hidema
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University

Effects of flexibility and entanglement of sodium hyaluronate in solutions on the elastic instability in micro abrupt contraction-expansion channels

 Fluids containing a small amount of polymer induce complex flow behavior, that is, hierarchical flow characteristics affected by a length scale. Elastic instability in a microfluidic device is one of an interesting phenomenon of complex fluids. In this seminar, I will introduce the observation of sodium hyaluronate (Hyaluronic Acid Sodium salt, Na-HA) solution in planar abrupt contraction-expansion microchannels to discuss the effects of polymer flexibility and entanglement on elastic instability. As the rigidity of Na-HA depends on the ionic strength of a solvent, Na-HA was dissolved in water and phosphate buffered saline. The flow regimes of the Na-HA solutions in several planar abrupt contraction-expansion channels were characterized by rheological properties of the solution. It was found that the entanglement of Na-HA in the solution is a more dominant factor affecting the flow regimes than the solution relaxation time and polymer rigidity.

11:00-12:00, Friday, May 29th, 2020
Online *Please visit the following link on time.

Associate Professor Satoshi TAKADA
Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Particle flows around an intruder

 Particle flows injected as a beam and scattered by an intruder are numerically studied [1].
We find a crossover of the drag force from Epstein’s law to Newton’s law depending on the ratio of the speed to the thermal speed. These asymptotic laws can be reproduced by a simple analysis of a collision model between the intruder and particle flows. The crossover from Epstein’s law to Stokes' law is also found for the low speed regime as a time evolution of the drag force caused by beam particles.
We also show the existence of turbulent-like behavior of the particle flows behind the intruder with the aid of the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor and the relative mean square displacement for the high speed regime and a large intruder.
[1] S. Takada and H. Hayakawa, arXiv:1904.12265.

15:00-16:00, Wednesday, March 18th, 2020
Building 15 - Lecture Room L0012,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Dr. Manoranjan Mishra
Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, INDIA

Control dynamics of miscible viscous fingering

 Viscous fingering (VF) is one of hydrodynamic instabilities, which is observable while displacing a less-mobile fluid by another more-mobile fluid through porous media, and it is ubiquitous to the transport phenomena in several porous media flows application. Moreover, instabilities at the interface of two distinct fluids remain a major challenge for enhanced oil recovery processes such as polymer flooding, On the other hand, this instability is likely to be detrimental to the separation efficiency in chromatographic separation process and can improve mixing in non-turbulent systems and micro-fluidic devices. The fact that depending on the application either a stable or an unstable interface is desirable makes the ability to control interfacial fingering instabilities. essential in design and technology. Such control mechanism of instabilities in fluid–fluid systems can be achieved by manipulating the various physio-chemical properties of the underlying fluids as well as the porous medium. This talk will be based upon the following three aspect, the possibilities of the liquid adsorption on the porous medium, the competition between advection and diffusion, as well as the chemical reaction, to control the VF.

13:00-14:00, January 30th, Thursday, 2020
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

三野 泰志 助教
岡山大学大学院自然科学研究科応用化学専攻 粒子・流体プロセス工学研究室

蒸発誘起型自己組織化を利用したコロイド粒子の規則配列 -界面動力学の理解に向けた実験と数値解析-


11:00-12:00, January 24th, Friday, 2020
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Dr. Timothée Mouterde
Institute for Photon Science and Technology (IPST), The University of Tokyo

Micro and nanotextures properties for dynamic antifogging

 A water drop deposited on a hydrophobic micrometric roughness is highly mobile. This property known as superhydrophobicity arises from the air trapped under the drop. However, when condensation forms within the textures, repellency is most often destroyed.
 In this work, we explore the possibility to induce antifogging abilities using nanotextured materials, following the example of cicada’s wings, shown to expel micrometric drops as they merge. Using model surfaces, we discuss the resistance of nanostructured materials to breath figures and show the full efficiency of nanocones: almost all the merging drops jump off the surface. We will then explore the mechanism responsible for this jumping behaviour with millimetric drops, and how viscosity limits antifogging abilities for microdroplets.
 We also describe the adhesion of hot water drops on model nanotextures with various sizes. Our study shows that the denser the textures are, the more resistant the surface is to temperature effects. Surprisingly, we observe the opposite in dynamic conditions: higher structures let more to hot drops bounce. The time needed for condensation to fill the air gap under the drop can be greater than the bouncing time: condensation has no effect on adhesion.

13:30-14:30, January 16th, Thursday, 2020
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Assistant Professor Dr. Yutaku Kita
Department of Mechanical Engineering and the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CENR), Kyushu University

Hydrothermal waves on evaporating sessile drops

 Drops and their evaporation are not only ubiquitous in nature but also relevant to many industrial applications e.g. material processing, patterning, DNA chip manufacturing and thermal management. Although it looks like a simple system at a glance, drop evaporation results from the complex interplay between heat and mass transfer and fluid dynamics. In my talk, I shall introduce our thermographic visualisation of evaporating drops (organic solvents or water) in various situations (environment, heating), revealing a few of them. The following topics will be covered: spontaneous thermocapillary hydrothermal waves on ethanol drops, the effect of secondary component present in the atmosphere i.e. ethanol drops evaporating in humid air, a way to actively control mixing in pure water drops.


13:00-14:00, December 19th, Thursday, 2019
Building 13 - Lecture Room L1331,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Prof.Dr.Xuehua Zhang
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,
University of Alberta, Canada

Dynamics of microdroplets in multicomponent liquids

 Phase separation induced by solvent addition is ubiquitous in many technologic and industrial processes, from preparation of pharmaceutical products, to formulation of cosmetics and insecticides, to liquid–liquid microextraction. The new microscopic phase formation induced by solvent addition takes place under the conditions far out-of-equilibrium. The growth dynamics of individual domains is determined not only by the concentration of compositions (thermodynamic aspects), but also by the temporal and spatial characteristics of the mixing process of the solvents (dynamic aspects). We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the effects from the mixing dynamics on the droplet formation under controlled flow conditions. A universal femtoliter droplet-based platform is developed for determination of partition coefficient in water and oil phases and for fast and sensitive nanoextraction of trace of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions. We further revealed the droplet formation from liquid-liquid phase separation in a quasi-2D chamber. Remarkably, the droplets exhibit significantly enhanced the mass transfer in confined spaces. This finding may of relevance to the interfacial process during oil extraction from underground by a displacing fluid.

15:30-17:00, November 21st, Thursday, 2019
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Research Director Dr. David Quéré
Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS),
Ecole polytechnique & L’École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris (ESPCI), France

The amazing dynamics of liquid pearls

 A few tricks (hydrophobic texture, heat, etc.) allow us to keep water (or even oil) with a spherical shape, making drops looking like pearls. This induces spectacular dynamical properties. We shall describe a few of them, ranging from anti-rain and anti-fog properties to self-propulsion.

11:00-12:00, September 26th Thursday, 2019
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Harish N Dixit
Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,
IIT Hyderabad, India

Characterising the dynamics of a drop bouncing on a smooth hydrophobic surface

 In the present work we focus on a single bouncing event of a drop on a solid surface. The dynamics of drop depends on three important non-dimensional numbers namely Reynolds number (𝑅𝑒 = 𝜌𝑈𝑅0/𝜇𝑙), Weber number (𝑊𝑒 = 𝜌𝑙𝑈2𝑅0/𝜎) and capillary number (𝐶𝑎𝑔 = 𝜇𝑔𝑈/𝜎 based on gas viscosity). To facilitate bouncing, we set 𝑊𝑒~𝑂(1), 𝑅𝑒~𝑂(100) and contact angle 𝜃 = 170°. We find that in these range of parameters, drop undergoes a complete rebound.
 Using axisymmetric simulations and a few experiments, several different bouncing regimes are found which can be depicted in the form of a phase diagram. For all Weber numbers and moderate values of Re, bouncing of the droplet occurs without any assistance of the surface characteristics such as super-hydrophobicity. This is referred to as wettability independent bouncing. For relatively higher Reynolds number, the droplet makes physical contact with the surface making the process wettability dependent. For wettability independent bouncing process, the drop is supported a thin cushion of gas underneath it. Using high resolution simulations, a detailed characterization of the gas film has been carried out revealing that the entire bouncing process can be divided into five regimes. The talk will shed light on scaling laws for gas film thickness, the shape of the gas film in each of the five regimes and the energetics of the bouncing process. The work rationalises many of the earlier experiments carried out in this area.
 If time permits, other problems of interest currently being pursued in my research group will also be briefly highlighted.

13:30-14:30, August 13th, Tuesday, 2019
Lecture Hall Building - Lecture Room L0031,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christophe Almarcha
Aix Marseille University, France

Dynamics of a reactive gaseous interface: Use of complex poles to describe the nonlinear evolution

 A premixed flame is a sub-millimeter interface through which a mixture of reacting gas is transforming into burned gas with an increase in temperature and molar volume by a factor 8. This is due to the global exothermicity of hundreds of chemical reactions at play. The gas expansion at the reactive interface induces hydrodynamical instabilities that are wrinkling the interface in a complex dynamics. Some cells are forming and merging in a fashion similar to bubbles in Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, contrary to that instability, the propagation of the flame induces a limitation of the wrinkling amplitude and it is then possible to describe the evolution of the interface with a PDE equation: the Michelson-Sivashinsky equation. Moreover some analytical solutions consisting of pole trajectories in the complex plane are capable of describing all the dynamics, even in the fully nonlinear regime. This is what we demonstrate experimentally in a quasi-2D burner.

11:00-12:00, July 19th Friday, 2019
Building 6 - Room 501,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Keita Ando
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Keio University, Tokyo, Japan

Ultrasound-induced cavitation and hydrodynamic phenomena in water under dissolved oxygen supersaturation: Role of cavitation bubbles in ultrasonic cleaning

 The dynamics of acoustic cavitation bubbles play an essential role in "efficient" ultrasonic cleaning, but may cause damage to cleaning surface in case bubble collapse is violent enough to accompany strong shock emission and re-entrant liquid jet collision against the surface. Here, the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) supersaturated water is proposed toward "damageless" low-intensity ultrasonic cleaning where mild bubble dynamics are expected to clean surfaces softly. In this talk, visualization of ultrasound-induced acoustic and hydrodynamic phenomena in water whose DO supersaturation is an experimental parameter will be presented to show the importance of dissolved gas supersaturation for ultrasonic cleaning to be both efficient and damageless.

13:00-15:00, July 12th Friday, 2019
Lecture Hall Building - Lecture Room L0026,
Koganei Campus, TUAT:

Prof. Dr. Jose M. Gordillo
University of Seville, Spain

A theory on the spreading of droplets

 Here we provide a self-consistent analytical solution describing the unsteady flow in the slender thin film which is expelled radially outwards when a drop hits a dry solid wall. Thanks to the fact that the fluxes of mass and momentum entering into the toroidal rim bordering the expanding liquid sheet are calculated analytically, we show here that our theoretical results closely follow the measured time-varying position of the rim with independence of the wetting properties of the substrate. The particularization of the equations describing the rim dynamics at the instant the drop reaches its maximal extension which, in analogy with the case of Savart sheets, is characterized by a value of the local Weber number equal to one, provides an algebraic equation for the maximum spreading radius also in excellent agreement with experiments. The self-consistent theory presented here, which does not make use of energetic arguments to predict the maximum spreading diameter of impacting drops, provides us with the time evolution of the thickness and of the velocity of the rim bordering the expanding sheet. This information is crucial in the calculation of the diameters and of the velocities of the droplets ejected radially outwards for drop impact velocities above the splashing threshold. We will use the results obtained to the particular case the substrate is superhydrophobic and will show that the theory is able to predict the splash threshold velocity and also the velocities and the diameters of the droplets ejected for impact velocities above this threshold.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Guillaume Riboux
University of Seville, Spain

Drop splashing: Aerodynamic considerations

 When a drop of a low viscosity liquid impacts against a smooth solid substrate at a velocity V, a liquid sheet of thickness very small compare to the drop radius is expelled tangentially to the substrate at high velocity compare to V. If the impact velocity is such that V > V* with V* the critical velocity for splashing, the edge of the expanding liquid sheet lifts off from the wall as a consequence of the gas lubrication force at the wedge region created between the advancing liquid front and the substrate. In the present talk, we show that the magnitude of the gas lubrication force is limited by the values of the slip lengths at the gas-liquid interface and at the solid. We demonstrate that the splashing regime changes depending on the value of the ratio of the slip lengths, a fact explaining the spreading-splashing-spreading-splashing transition for a reduced value of the surrounding gas pressure as the drop impact velocity increases. We also provide an expression for V* as a function of the inclination angle of the substrate, the drop radius, the material properties of the liquid and the gas and the mean free path of gas molecules.

13:00-14:00, May 14th Tuesday, 2019
Building 6 -Room 501:

Dr. Badarinath Karri
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India

Recent Research on Cavitation bubble dynamics at IIT-Hyderabad

 In this talk, I will discuss about some specific research problems in the area of cavitation bubble dynamics that we are working on in my laboratory at IIT Hyderabad, India. I will discuss two specific problems a) The entrapment of an air bubble on the free surface of water due to the expansion and collapse of a non-equilibrium bubble and b) The effect of viscosity on the dynamics of a non-equilibrium bubble. We have used a low-voltage spark circuit wherein a capacitor is first charged and then discharged through two contacting electrodes within a liquid to create a bubble. As the bubble expands and collapses, we observe dynamics of the bubble under different surroundings in both of the above mentioned problems. The entire dynamics were recorded using a high-speed camera which helped to understand the mechanism behind the observed behaviour.

10:30-11:30, February 27th Wednesday, 2019
Building 6 -Room 501:

Prof. Dr. Peichun Amy Tsai
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Alberta, Canada

Controlling Emulsion, Slippage, Splashing, and Viscous-Fingering

 In this talk, I will demonstrate how to alter macroscopic flows via interfacial modifications at micro scales, highlighting associated energy, environmental, and technological applications. Several flow scenarios are scrutinized and presented, namely microfluidic flows, drop impact, and macroscopic fluid-fluid displacement. In microfluidic laminar flow, our pore-scale measurements reveal that the geometry of the liquid-gas interface strongly influences the hydrodynamic slippage, i.e., drag reduction, using hydrophobic micro-structures. In drop impact on a solid substrate, the impact outcomes can be tuned by varying the microstructures of the surface. In a large-scale flow configuration, a viscous-fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell—a convenient framework for modeling a homogeneous porous medium—can be controlled through a capillary effect. From these results, we learn that the interfacial conditions play an important role, thereby offering strategic controls of flow motion.

10:00-11:00, February 22nd Friday, 2019
Building 6 -Room 501:

Prof. Dr. Frank Quero
Professor of Polymeric Materials
University of Chile, Chile

Cellulose fibrils as a building block for the design of membrane and composite materials

 This talk will deal with cellulose fibrils, a class of materials that can be obtained from various sources, including plants, tunicates and bacteria. This talk will present the extraction and characterization of cellulose fibrils obtained from a marine resource and how membranes with highly negative surfaces charges at pH < 4 can be obtained. Potential application of these membranes will be discussed. Also, we will show how cellulose fibrils obtained from bacteria and plants can be used as a reinforcement material for the design of composite materials with improved mechanical properties. Experimental data on the quantification of the interfacial interaction between nanocellulose and various polymer matrices by Raman spectroscopy will be shown.


10:30-11:30, December 27th Thursday, 2018
Building 6 -Room 501:

Prof. Dr. Xuehua Zhang
Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering
University of Alberta

Formation of nanodroplets in ternary liquid mixtures

 Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of droplets on surfaces under different flow conditions has recently advanced to a quantitative level. This talk will give an overview of our latest contributions to the formation and properties of surface droplets by solvent exchange and to point out the potential applications of surface nanodroplets in highly sensitive chemical analysis. We will present a universal femtoliter surface droplet-based platform for direct quantification of trace of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions. In-situ quantification of the extracted analytes is achieved by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy by nanoparticles on the functionalized droplets.

13:30-14:30, May 25th Friday, 2018
Building 6 -Room 501:

Prof. Dr. Yanrong Li
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering
Ibaraki University

Frequency characteristics and fluid flow property of flow-induced vibration

 The present study focused on the frequency properties of flow-induced vibration, i.e. clarifying lock-in condition and flow fluctuation propagation of flow-induced vibration with resonator and frequency characteristics and flow oscillation pattern of flow- induced vibration without resonator. On this basis, flow-induced acoustic resonance inside closed coaxial side branches, which is a typical case of flow-induced vibration with resonator, and periodical feedback flow structure inside a feedback type fluidic oscillator, which is a classical type of flow-induced vibration without resonator, was investigated. In order to find out the jet oscillation properties, the high time resolved PIV technique was utilized to extract the two-dimensional flow fields.

January 22nd Monday, 2018: Prof. Tadd T. Truscott
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Utah State University

Water skipping of elastomeric spheres

 Elastomeric silicone rubber spheres ricochet from a water surface when rigid spheres and disks (or skipping stones) cannot, but why? High speed cameras allow us to see that these unique spheres deform significantly as they impact the water surface, flattening into oblate shapes at impact and then returning to spherical shapes. We present a regime diagram which enables the prediction of ricochet from sphere impact conditions. Our experiments and mathematical models show that these deformable spheres skip more readily because deformation momentarily increases cross-sectional area and produces an attack angle with the water which is favorable to skipping. Predictions from our mathematical model agree strongly with observations from experiments. Even when a sphere was allowed to skip multiple times in the laboratory, the mathematical model showed good agreement with measured impact conditions through subsequent skipping events. While studying multiple impact events in an outdoor setting, we discovered a previously unidentified means of skipping, which is unique to deformable spheres. This new skipping occurs when a relatively soft sphere impacts the water at a high speed and low impact angle wherein the sphere begins to rotate very quickly. This large angular velocity causes the sphere to stretch into and maintain a disk-like shape with an oval cross section. The sphere is observed to move nearly parallel with the water surface with the tips of the major axis of the spheroid dipping into the water as it rotates with the sides passing just over the surface. This sequence of rapid impact events give the impression that the sphere is walking across the water surface (collaborated with R. Hurd & J. Belden).

January 22nd Monday, 2018: Dr. M. M. Mansoor
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Utah State University

Stable-streamlined and helical cavities following the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

 In this talk I will report results from an experimental study on the formation of stable–streamlined and helical cavity wakes following the free-surface impact of Leidenfrost spheres. The Leidenfrost effect encapsulates the sphere by a vapor layer to prevent any physical contact with the surrounding liquid. This phenomenon is essential for the pacification of acoustic rippling along the cavity interface to result in a stable-streamlined cavity wake. This streamlined configuration is found to experience drag coefficients an order of a magnitude lower than those acting on room-temperature spheres. A striking observation is the formation of helical cavities which occur for impact Reynolds numbers Re0 ≥ 1.4×105 and are characterized by multiple interfacial ridges, stemming from and rotating synchronously about an evident contact line around the sphere equator. Using sphere trajectory measurements, this helical cavity wake configuration is shown to have 40%–55% smaller force coefficients than those obtained in the formation of stable cavity wakes. (published in the J. Fluid Mech. 823, 2017). The teardrop-shaped gas cavities are also shown to be reproducible in water with room-temperature spheres where the gas-layer around the sphere can be sustained by making the sphere surface superhydrophobic (published in Science Advances, 3(9) 2017).

January 22nd Monday, 2018: Dr. Z. Pan
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Utah State University

Water collection and transport on Syntrichia caninervis: a fluid mechanics study on multi-scale multi-functional morphology of a desert moss

 Syntrichia caninervis is one of the most abundant desert mosses in the world and thrives in an extreme environment with multiple but limited water resources (such as dew, fog, snow and rain), yet the mechanisms for water collection and transport have never been completely revealed. S. caninervis has a unique adaptation: it uses a tiny hair (awn) on the end of each leaf to collect water, in addition to that collected by the leaves themselves. Here we show that the unique multiscale structures of the hair are equipped to collect and transport water in four modes: nucleation of water droplets and films on the leaf hair from humid atmospheres; collection of fog droplets on leaf hairs; collection of splash water from raindrops; and transportation of the acquired water to the leaf itself. Fluid nucleation is accomplished in nanostructures, whereas fog droplets are gathered in areas where a high density of small barbs are present and then quickly transported to the leaf at the base of the hair. Our observations reveal nature’s optimization of water collection by coupling relevant multiscale physical plant structures with multiscale sources of water. This research could inspire the design of fog harvest devices to help the people living in arid areas and high-efficiency dehumidifiers.

January 18th Thursday, 2018:
Dr. Andres FernandoFranco-Gomez
School of Physics and Astronomy
The University of Manchester

Semi-infinite and finite bubble propagation in the presence of a channel-depth perturbation

 The two-phase flow displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a confined environment leads to a viscous fingering instability commonly encountered in natural systems, for example, in flows through porous media or pulmonary airways, with important applications in oil recovery or respiratory treatments. The classical study of viscous fingering has been conducted in rectangular channels of high aspect ratio (large width/height), known as Hele-Shaw channels where a unique, steady symmetric, semi-infinite bubble (finger) emerges. Here, we consider the propagation of semi-infinite (open) and finite (closed) air bubbles in Hele-Shaw channels where thin, axially-uniform occlusions are introduced. This configuration is known to generate symmetric, asymmetric and oscillatory modes with complex interactions and rich behaviour. Experimental results of finger propagation in these constricted channels is found to be in quantitative agreement with numerical computations using a depth- averaged model once the aspect ratio reaches a value of α ≥ 40 and capillary numbers (ratio between viscous and surface tension forces) below Ca ≤ 0.012. The same evolution of the bifurcation structure between multiple modes is found, however, it occurs for decreasing values of occlusion height as the value of aspect ratio is increased, that the system exhibits sensitivity to small but finite depth-variations. Moreover, deviations from the single symmetric mode are predicted when depth-variations of order of the roughness of the channel walls (∼ 1 μm) are introduced for larger aspect ratios of α ≥ 155.
The second part of this talk considers strongly confined finite bubbles in a channel with constant aspect ratio of α = 30 and where the height of the occlusion, termed rail, is 1/40 of the channel height. Recent investigations (Abbyad et al. 2011) have suggested that local variations in drop confinement can be used as an effective means of passively guiding or trapping droplets using microfabricated grooves. Here, we investigate bubble propagation in two regimes of bubble sizes, one on the same order as the rail-width and the other of the order of the channel-width. We find that when surface tension forces (small capillary number Ca) are dominant the bubbles tend to localise on the channel-sides. However, a subtle balance between viscous and surface tension forces means that for intermediate capillary numbers the bubbles can be stabilised on top of the rail, before a further symmetry breaking bifurcation pushes them into one of the channel-sides at higher Ca. Moreover, for bubbles comparable with the rail-width, we find that they can travel stably either centred or in a channel-side beyond a critical capillary number. These bifurcation phenomena are investigated using a combination of experiments and numerical computations with a view to passively control and sort bubbles by size.


June 16th Friday: 中島 一浩 様



June 1st Thursday: Dr. Ivo Peters
Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics Research Group
University of Southampton

Dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

 Shear a dense suspension of cornstarch and water hard enough, and the system seems to solidify as a result. Indeed, previous studies have shown that a jamming front propagates through these systems until, after interaction with boundaries, a jammed solid spans across the system. Because these fully jammed states are only observed if the deformation is fast enough, a natural question to ask is how this phenomenon is related to the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) behavior of these suspensions. We present a single experimental setup in which we on the one hand can measure the rheological flow curves, but on the other hand also determine if the suspension is in a jammed state. This we do by using a large-gap cylindrical Couette cell, where we control the applied shear stress using a rheometer. Because our setup only applies shear, the jammed states we observe are shear-jammed, and cannot be a result of an overall increase in packing fraction. We probe for jammed states by dropping small steel spheres on the surface of the suspension, and identify elastic responses. Our experiments reveal a clear distinction between the onset of DST and Shear-Jammed states, which have qualitatively different trends with packing fraction close to the isotropic jamming point.

May 24th Wednesday: Prof. Dr. Claus-Dieter Ohl
School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,
Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Nanyang Technological University

The look and touch of nanobubbles

 Nanobubbles challenged the scientific community twofold: they are difficult to distinguish from contamination and they - according to physics should not be existent. In this seminar I'll convince you that nanobubbles are a reality, as long as they are pinned to a substrate and they have a special touch. The key to a successful study of the mysterious gaseous objects was to combine the touch from atomic force microscopy and with the optical image. I'll present a preliminary theory on their stability, the measurement of the pinning force, and how you can make them yourself by mixing water with alcohol.

April 6th Thursday: Prof. Dr. Xuehua Zhang
School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Formation of surface bubbles under flow conditions

 Regulating formation and growth of microscopic bubbles at solid-liquid interfaces is essential in many physical, chemical and catalytic processes. The growth of bubbles in a group is influenced by the neighbouring bubbles as well as the overall gas concentration in the system. In this work, we have investigated the growth of multiple microbubbles on highly ordered hydrophobic microcavity arrays, seeded by pre-existing gas pockets trapped inside the cavities. A pulse of gas oversaturation at an extremely low level was supplied by solvent exchange. Our results show that the distance between the seeding air pockets has significant effects on the location, number density and size of bubbles on the array. With closely spaced microcavities, growing microbubbles self-organized into symmetric patterns. Their growth rate was enhanced at the corners and edges of the array, and interior bubbles dissolved due to the competitive growth. By contrast, no symmetric patterns were observed when the space between the microcavities was large. The findings reported in this work provide important insights into solvent exchange and collective interactions in the formation of surface bubbles.

March 22nd Wednesday: Prof. Dr. Marc K. Smith
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology

Multiphase flows from bloodstain pattern analysis to acoustically forced condensation

 Multiphase flows appear in a broad range of systems and applications. In this presentation, two very different applications will be described. The first is a bloodstain pattern. A blood-letting event such as a cut, blunt trauma, or gunshot wound will release many blood droplets from the body that produce a complex bloodstain pattern upon impact with a solid surface. Bloodstain pattern analysis is a set of techniques used in forensic crime-scene reconstruction that examines this pattern to help determine the point of origin of the blood droplets as well as the method of their creation. In one technique, the pattern analyst examines individual bloodstains to infer the size, impact angle, and impact velocity of the blood droplet that produced the stain. This technique was explored and extended in an experimental study of the impact and spreading of a single droplet of a blood simulant on planar surfaces of variable roughness and wettability oriented at various angles with respect to the velocity vector of the approaching droplet. The primary focus of the work was to use the shape of the fully spread droplet to determine the initial conditions of the droplet impact. Three different solid surfaces were used and the impact process was explored over a range of Reynolds numbers (1,000 – 5,500) and Weber numbers (200 – 2,000) typical of some forensic situations. Results of this work will be presented and compared to the common forensics practice used in the field.
 A second application of multiphase flow is the enhanced condensation of vapor bubbles in a quiescent subcooled liquid using ultrasonic actuation. In this set of experiments, the vapor bubbles are formed by direct injection from a pressurized steam reservoir through a nozzle with a specified diameter. The bubbles then rise in the liquid through a constant or pulsed acoustic field of programmable intensity. Low frequency acoustic actuation creates capillary waves on the vapor-liquid interface (known as Faraday waves), while ultrasonic actuation leads to the formation of a liquid jet that penetrates the bubble and significantly increases its surface area and therefore its condensation rate. The ultrasonic beam also self-focusses within the jet leading to the ejection of small-scale droplets from the jet that are propelled to the opposite surface of the bubble, which further enhances condensation. High-speed Schlieren video is used to investigate the effects of ultrasonic actuation on the thermal boundary layer at the vapor-liquid interface and its effect on the enhanced condensation rate. PIV measurements on the liquid side are used to assess liquid motion during condensation.

February 27th Monday: Prof. Dr. Tuan Tran
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering
Nanyang Technological University

Universality of oscillating in Leidenfrost transition

 The Leidenfrost transition leads a boiling system to the boiling crisis, a state in which the liquid loses contact with the heated surface due to excessive vapor generation. Here, using experiments of liquid droplets boiling on a heated surface, we report a new phenomenon, termed oscillating boiling, at the Leidenfrost transition. We show that oscillating boiling is resulted from the competition between two effects: separation of liquid from the heated surface due to localized boiling, and rewetting. We argue theoretically that the Leidenfrost transition can be predicted based on its link with the oscillating boiling phenomenon, and verify the prediction experimentally for various liquids.

February 21st Tuesday: Prof. Dr. Chihiro Inoue
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo


 戦国時代後期に,火縄銃とともに黒色火薬が伝来した。江戸時代になると,黒色火薬を用いて花火が作られるようになった。線香花火は,わずか0.1gの黒色火薬と和紙からなる最も単純な玩具花火である。同時に,最も馴染み深い花火の一つであろう。紙縒りの上端を持ち,下端に点火すると,火薬が勢い良く燃えてオレンジ色の火球ができる。一呼吸置いた後,火球から四方に飛び出した火花が,遠方でパッと弾けて,松葉状の美しい模様を描き出す。やがて火花は弱々しく出ては消え,一生を終える。この独特の儚い美しさは,数世紀にわたって親しまれてきたものの,なぜ火花が出るのか?なぜ火花が破裂するのか?なぜ独特の色味が表れるのか?といった,誰もが思う素朴な疑問への答えは明らかにされてこなかった。2012年8月以降, 我々は,高速度可視化計測や熱分析,理論解析を行うことで,長年の謎の一端を解き明かすことに成功した。講演では,線香花火研究を始めるきっかけになった映像や,初めて撮影された火花連鎖分裂の高速度可視化結果などを紹介しながら, 線香花火の美の物理を解説する。また, 火花は溶融塩液滴の軌跡であり,線香花火現象の律速過程が液滴内部の熱拡散であることなど,理論的側面について述べる。あわせて,横浜国立大学と共同で実施した熱分析によって特定された,液滴連鎖分裂を引き起こす物質ついても紹介する。
  ” Senko-hanabi as Dancing Drops ”

February 20th Monday:
Prof. Dr. Anne-Laure Biance
Institut Lumière Matière, Université Lyon 1 et CNRS

Morphology of drop impact

 Droplet impact on substrates is highly used in many practical situations, for cooling processes, solid sphere fabrication, police investigation or ink-jet printing among others… Depending on the liquid characteristics (surface tension, viscosity) and the droplet size and velocity, different regimes can be observed (viscous, capillary or inertia dominated ones.). In this talk, I will review some work we performed on this subject focusing on the specific nature of the substrate. We will consider the cases of:
-Drop impact on smooth substrate which can be heated (we are then in the so-called Leidenfrost regime) or not (the viscous dissipation is then crucial)
-Drop impact on multiscale super hydrophobic substrates
-Drop impact on a heated substrate that bears some topological defects.
In both cases, we will rely on high-speed camera characterizations, adsorption measurements (to probe the lamella thickness) and particle tracking velocimetry to understand the different behaviors observed.
Collaborators C. Ybert, C. Lee, C. Pirat
Students H. Lastakowski, Q. Ehlinger